23^ HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION Those who wanted a better education for the governing classes than that given in the grammar schools saw clearly the necessity for a proper knowledge of English, for use " in preaching, in council, in parliament, in commission, and other offices of Commonweal." From this to the recognition of English as worthy of a place alongside the ancient languages as a medium of humanistic discipline there was still a considerable interval. But at least one great teacher, as we shall see, was ready to go all the way. The prevalence of the desire for educational improvement is shown by the number of books dealing with education during this period. The subject, one might almost say, was in everybody's mind. Even a poet like Spenser thinks of his poetry as essentially educative, declaring the aim of the. Faerie Queene to be the Institu- tion of a Gentlemanó" to fashion a gentleman or noble person in vertuous and gentle discipline " by the inculcation of the Aristotelian virtues. No less striking is the variety of treatment. One groupómen of the world, for the most partódiscusses the training of the well-born youth from many different points of view. Laurence Humphrey, a Calvinistic divine and president of Magdalen College, writes a treatise on The Nobles, first in Latin (1561), then in English (1563), to commend virtue and learning to the upper classes. Roger Ascham, the tutor and afterwards the secretary of Queen Elizabeth, expounds in the Scholemaster (1570) the method of learning the classics by double translation which he had employed with his royal pupil, in order to make the way of study easy and pleasant for the young. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, the great explorer and colonizer, puts forward a project for " the erection of an Academy in London for the education of Her Majesty's wards and others the youth of nobility and gentle- men " (1572), and draws up a comprehensive scheme of practical instruction in language, science, law and divinity, and the modern subjects " meet for present practice both of peace and war." James Cleland, a Scotsman domiciled in England, presents afresh the views of Castiglione, Elyot and the other exponents of the courtly culture, specially advocating foreign travel, in The Insti- tution of a Young Nobleman (1607). Somewhat later Henry Peacham goes over much the same ground, but dwells more fully than any of his predecessors on the beauties of English literature, ia the highly popular Compkat Gentleman (1622).